AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES OF THE DISTRICT AND THEIR CHARACTERS
Belagavi district represents three agro climatic zones namely, Hilly zone ( Zone 9), Northen Transitional Zone (Zone 8) and Northern Dry Zone(Zone 3). Hilly zone represented by Khanapur taluk. Northern Transitional zone represented by Bailhongal, Chikkodi, Hukkeri and Belagavi taluks. Northern Dry zone represented by Athani, Raibag, Gokak, Ramdurg and Savadatti taluks. Hence, there is vast difference between the taluks, in terms of rainfall (Avg. of 2006 to 2016), crops grown and even soil types and features. In general, Hilly zone has unimodal heavy rainfall Avg. 2468 mm annual rainfall. The major soil type of the zone is lateritic or red sandy soils typically suitable for drill sown paddy cultivation. The Northern Transitional zone has red sandy/ loamy soils with bimodal rainfall of about Avg. 550-1025 mm typically suitable for double cropping under rainfed situations. Northern Dry zone has characteristic unimodal low rainfall of about 278-441 mm rainfall with red loamy/ medium black soils suitable for single cropping. The mean maximum temperatures ranges from 40-42o
C during summer and moderate 30-32o
C during other months is characteristic feature of dry zone, where as in other two zones, neither minimum nor maximum temperatures pose threat to crop production. Low temperatures can touch even 13-15o
C for brief period during winter.
Description of Agro-climatic Zone :
(As per avg. rainfall of 2006 to 2016)
||Region II and Zone III
(Northern Dry Zone)
||It includes Gokak, Athani, Raibag, Ramadurg and Savadatti taluks. This area comes under arid to semi arid region. Temperature of this area is moderate to hot and rainfall is unevenly distributed. The average rainfall is 278-441 mm per annum. Between June – August, 80 percent of the rainfall is received during and remaining 20 percent in September-November.
||Region IV and Zone VIII
(Northern Transitional Zone)
||It includes four taluks of namely Belagavi, Chikodi, Hukkeri and Bailhongal. Rainfall of the area ranges from 550 – 1025 mm and 60 percent of rainfall is received during pre monsoon and monsoon season.
||Region IV and Zone IX
||It includes only Khanapur taluk. Average annual rainfall of this area is 2468 mm and 75 percent rain is received during May – September.
Agro ecological situation:
| Sl. No.
||Northern Dry-Zone III
||Soil : Deep black, Medium black and Red sandy and Red loam and shallow black
Rain fall: 278-441 mm
Rainy day: 43 days
Temp: Max 39.50 C, Min 150C
Relative Humidity: 35-70%
Source of Irrigation: Canal (Malaprabha&Ghataprabha), River Krishna, Open wells and Bore wells
Maize, Soybean, Groundnut, Sugarcane and Bt. Cotton, Mulberry, Cole crops, Turmeric, Tomato
Jowar, Green gram, Horsegram, Pigeon pea, Soybean, Groundnut, Sunflower, Bt. Cotton, Onion, Chilli,
Rabi : Rabi – Jowar, Wheat, Dicocum wheat, Bengal gram and Safflower
Rabi/Summer: Irrigated Sugarcane and Groundnut, Onion, Chilli, Brinjal, Tomato, Grapes, Banana
Wheat + Safflower Safflower + Bengal gram
||Athani, Raibag, Gokak,
||Northern Transition Zone-VIII
||Soil : Medium to deep black soils, light red and shallow soils
Rainfall : 550 – 1025 mm occurs during pre monsoon to monsoon season
Rainy days : 56 days
Temp: Max 39.50 C, Min 140C
Relative Humidity: 69-90%
Source of irrigation: Open wells and Bore wells
Maize, Sugarcane, Soybean, Paddy, Jowar, Groundnut, Bt. Cotton, Mulberry, Chilli, Potato, Peas, Onion, Tomato, Brinjal, Capsicum, Beans, Gourds, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Knolkol and leafy vegetables
Rabi Jowar, Wheat, Bengal gram. Sunflower and Coriander
Sugarcane, Dicocum wheat, Groundnut,
||Maize + Cowpea
Sugarcane + Chilli/ Capsicum/ Tomato/ Onion/ Leafy Vegetables
Green Peas + Rabi Jowar,
Rabi Jowar + Bengal gram
Chikkodi and Hukkeri taluks
||Soil : Red loamy and Laterite soils
Rainfall: 2468 mm
Rainy days: 90 days
Temp: Max 29.50 C, Min140C
Source of irrigation:
Open wells and Bore wells
||Kharif : Paddy, Sugarcane and Sweet potato
Rabi: Sugarcane, Pulses, Maize and Chilli
Gourds, Tomato, Chilli and Capsicum
||Paddy + Mustard/ Lentil
Major soil types of Belagavi district
||Deep black soils
||Deep, moderately well drained, dark grayish brown to very dark grayish brown, calcareous cracking clay to salty clay soils moderately to severely eroded
||Medium deep black soil
||Moderately deep, moderately well drained, dark brown to very dark grayish brown, non calcareous cracking clay to salty clay soils, moderately to severely eroded
||Shallow black soils
||Shallow, well-drained, grey to dark grey and brown clay loam to salty clay loam soils, severely eroded.
||Red sandy soils
||Shallow well drained to excessively drained, reddish brown to yellowish brown, gravely sandy loam to sandy clay loam, moderate to severely eroded
||Red loam Soils
||Shallow, excessively drained to well drained, reddish brown to yellowish red, sandy clay loam to sandy loam soils, moderately to severely eroded.
||Deep, well drained to excessively drain yellowish red to dark reddish brown, gravely, sandy clay and clay surface soils moderately to severely eroded with surface crusting.
Area and per-cent of major soil types of Belagavi district
||Per cent (%) of total
|3. Sandy Soils
|4. Sandy loam
Land use pattern of Belagavi district:
||Land under non agri. Use
||Land under miscellanceous tree crops and groves
||Net sown area
||Gross cropped area
Production details of the Sugar factories during 2016-17
||No. of working sugar factories and cane crushed
|Working factories (nos)
||Cane crushed(in MTs)
Source: as per KAG 2015-16
In Belgaum district wide range of crops are grown and has good scope to increase production and productivity of crops. The farming situation is also different from rainfed to irrigated situation. Based on crop area and problems, farmer income enhancement is planned with increasing productivity, cost reduction, crop diversification and value addition. It is mentioned here district major crops, area, production and productivity information.
Table 27: Area, Production and Productivity of the field crops:
|Commercial crop Total
Enhancing Crop Productivity
In view of ever-increasing demand for food, increased production per unit area is critical. since increase in area may not be a feasible option, improved yield appears as the only solution.
Enhancing Production through increase in yield or productivity of crops and other enterprises is the single most important factor that can increase income. Enhancing the productivity is the only route available to enhance income. while varietal improvement through conventional breeding or biotechnology is a long-term option, bridging yield gaps through adoption of recommended agronomic practices, planning profitable technology that can maximize aggregate income. Use of high yielding variety seeds or planting material, irrigation, crop nutrition, integrated weed management and integrated pest management are the primary factors. These can enhance productivity.
Cost reduction Technologies:
Reducing cost of cultivation through good and effective management practices are essetial practices to enhance farmers net income. The cost of cultivation has been on the rise’ eroding the profits. Lowering the costs without compromising on the yield out-put can increase the net income’. It is possible to do so as there is a general tendency on the part of farmers to apply overdose of fertilizers, pesticides, non-adoption of mechanization in various agricultural practices and depending on age old practices expecting higher yields/ is increasing cost of cultivation. Hence adoption of mechanization to reduce labour dependency, integrated weed/pest/nutrient and irrigation techniques and production of manure with farm residue can increase income by reducing cost.
Diversification can be a major game changer. When we talk about diversification it is mostly about high value crops, intercropping system, introduction of new profitable crop, crop/varieties suitable to adopt and good yielding system to climatic vulnerability. Diversification of agriculture offers food and nutrition security, income growth, diversification of sources of income, poverty alleviation, employment generation, judicious use of land and water resources, sustainable agricultural development, and environmental improvement. Especially for small holders who do not possess adequate land to generate enough income for the family. It can be of three types, viz. product (high value enterprises), process (precision farming), and time diversification (delinking from seasonality).
Value addition is the process of changing/ transforming/ segregating agro-animal produce/community from its original state to customer-based product to derived enhanced income through marketing system. Agro processing is a set of physico-techno economic activities carried out for transformation, value addition, preservation, conservation and handling of agro-animal produce to make it usable as food, feed, fibre, fuel and industrial raw material. Value addition to raw farm produce has been recognised as one of the key contributors for sustainable growth in farmers income and rural employment. Value added products can fetch 2-3 times more prices. Presently the producer farmer gets only 25% of his produce value what the consumer pays. Around 75%of value goes to processors, distributers and marketers. Therefore, agricultural universities/research institutes/private institutes have developed adaptable processes, technologies, equipment’s and machinery for food processing, packaging, storage and marketing at different scales.