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Agro-climatic zones

Belagavi district represents three agro climatic zones namely, Hilly zone ( Zone 9), Northen Transitional Zone (Zone 8) and Northern Dry Zone(Zone 3). Hilly zone  represented by Khanapur taluk. Northern Transitional zone represented by Bailhongal, Chikkodi, Hukkeri and Belagavi taluks.  Northern Dry zone represented by Athani, Raibag, Gokak, Ramdurg and Savadatti taluks. Hence, there is vast difference between the taluks, in terms of rainfall (Avg. of 2006 to 2016), crops grown and even soil types and features. In general, Hilly zone has unimodal heavy rainfall Avg. 2468 mm annual rainfall. The major soil type of the zone is lateritic or red sandy soils typically suitable for drill sown paddy cultivation. The Northern Transitional zone has red sandy/ loamy soils with bimodal rainfall of about Avg. 550-1025 mm typically suitable for double cropping under rainfed situations. Northern Dry zone has characteristic unimodal low rainfall of about 278-441 mm rainfall with red loamy/ medium black soils suitable for single cropping. The mean maximum temperatures ranges from 40-42oC during summer and moderate 30-32oC during other months is characteristic feature of dry zone, where as in other two zones, neither  minimum nor maximum temperatures pose threat to crop production. Low temperatures can touch even 13-15oC for brief period during winter.
Description of Agro-climatic Zone :
Sl. No. Agro-climatic Zone Characteristics (As per avg. rainfall of 2006 to 2016)
1 Region II and Zone III (Northern Dry Zone) It includes Gokak, Athani, Raibag, Ramadurg and Savadatti taluks. This area comes under arid to semi arid region. Temperature of this area is moderate to hot and rainfall is unevenly distributed. The average rainfall is 278-441 mm per annum. Between June – August, 80 percent of the rainfall is received during and remaining 20 percent  in September-November.
2 Region IV and Zone VIII (Northern Transitional Zone) It includes four taluks of namely Belagavi, Chikodi, Hukkeri and Bailhongal. Rainfall of the area ranges from 550 – 1025 mm and 60 percent of rainfall is received during pre monsoon and    monsoon season.
3 Region IV and Zone IX (Hilly Zone) It includes only Khanapur taluk. Average annual rainfall of this area is 2468 mm and 75 percent rain is received during May – September.
 Agro ecological situation:
 Sl. No. Northern Dry-Zone III Characteristics
Major crops Intercropping Location
1                   Soil : Deep black, Medium black and Red sandy and Red loam and shallow black Rain fall: 278-441 mm Rainy day: 43 days Temp: Max 39.50 C,  Min 150C         Relative Humidity: 35-70% Source of Irrigation: Canal (Malaprabha&Ghataprabha), River Krishna,  Open wells and Bore wells Kharif-Irrigated: Maize, Soybean, Groundnut, Sugarcane and Bt. Cotton, Mulberry, Cole crops, Turmeric, Tomato         Kharif :Rainfed Jowar, Green gram, Horsegram, Pigeon pea, Soybean, Groundnut, Sunflower, Bt. Cotton, Onion, Chilli, Rabi :  Rabi – Jowar, Wheat, Dicocum wheat, Bengal gram and Safflower Rabi/Summer: Irrigated Sugarcane and Groundnut, Onion, Chilli, Brinjal, Tomato, Grapes, Banana –                     Pigeonpea+Blackgram, Pigeonpea+Groundnut, Pigeonpea+Greengram,         Jowar+Bengalgram, Wheat + Safflower  Safflower + Bengal gram   Athani, Raibag, Gokak, Ramadurga and Savadatti taluks
Northern Transition Zone-VIII
2 Soil : Medium to deep black soils, light red and shallow soils Rainfall : 550 – 1025 mm occurs during pre monsoon to monsoon season Rainy days : 56 days Temp: Max 39.50 C, Min 140C Relative Humidity: 69-90% Source of irrigation: Open wells and Bore wells Kharif  irrigated Maize, Sugarcane, Soybean, Paddy, Jowar, Groundnut,  Bt. Cotton, Mulberry, Chilli, Potato, Peas, Onion, Tomato, Brinjal, Capsicum, Beans, Gourds, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Knolkol and leafy vegetables Rabi-Rainfed Rabi Jowar, Wheat, Bengal gram. Sunflower and Coriander Rabi irrigated Sugarcane, Dicocum wheat, Groundnut, Maize + Cowpea Sugarcane + Chilli/ Capsicum/ Tomato/ Onion/ Leafy Vegetables               Green Peas + Rabi Jowar, Rabi Jowar + Bengal gram   Belagavi, Bailhongal, Chikkodi and Hukkeri taluks  
Hilly Zone-IX
3     Soil : Red loamy and Laterite soils Rainfall: 2468 mm Rainy days: 90 days Temp: Max 29.50 C, Min140C Relative Humidity:80-90% Source of irrigation: Open wells and Bore wells Kharif :  Paddy, Sugarcane and Sweet potato Rabi:  Sugarcane,  Pulses, Maize and Chilli Rabi/Summer: Sugarcane Horticulture Crops Gourds, Tomato, Chilli and Capsicum Paddy + Mustard/ Lentil Khanapur taluk
Major soil types  of Belagavi district
Sl. No. Soil type Characteristics
1 Deep black soils Deep, moderately well drained, dark grayish brown to very dark grayish brown, calcareous cracking clay to salty clay soils moderately to severely eroded
2 Medium deep black soil Moderately deep, moderately well drained, dark brown to very dark grayish brown, non calcareous cracking clay to salty clay soils, moderately to severely eroded
3 Shallow black soils Shallow, well-drained, grey to dark grey and brown clay loam to salty clay loam soils, severely eroded.
4 Red sandy soils Shallow well drained to excessively drained, reddish brown to yellowish brown, gravely sandy loam to sandy clay loam, moderate to severely eroded
5 Red loam Soils Shallow, excessively drained to well drained, reddish brown to yellowish red, sandy clay loam to sandy loam soils, moderately to severely eroded.
6 Laterite soils Deep, well drained to excessively drain yellowish red to dark reddish brown, gravely, sandy clay and clay surface soils moderately to severely eroded with surface crusting.
Area and per-cent of major soil types of Belagavi district
Major Soils Area (ha) Per cent (%) of total
1. Black 224709 ha 51
2. Red 101339 ha 23
3. Sandy Soils 61684 ha 14
4. Sandy loam 52872 ha 12
Land use pattern of Belagavi district:
Sl. No Taluk Geographical Area Forest area Land under non agri. Use Cultivable waste Permanent pasture Land under miscellanceous tree crops and groves Current fallow Other falloff Net sown area Gross cropped area

Cropping intestisity


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1 Athani 199513 581 6547 3171 2134 129 94374 1074 81965 131989 161
2 Bailhongal 112233 7913 7816 0 1380 1403 12243 0 75559 110509 146
3 Belagavi 103721 22643 6875 2056 4225 520 16084 0 48230 62819 130
4 Chikkodi 126949 547 5771 1648 2915 126 18764 580 92184 118917 129
5 Gokak 154308 22284 4691 254 1517 0 25618 1737 85781 132289 154
6 Hukkeri 99140 13987 11537 147 2583 159 10164 0 61166 70528 115
7 Khanapur 172956 91309 5528 3240 3261 687 15486 552 48594 52196 107
8 Raibag 95874 2647 4016 884 1452 11 32769 1135 44070 56614 124
9 Ramadurga 121542 15081 2974 0 1192 7 43567 668 51480 87803 171
10 Savadathi 158146 13432 14075 65 4218 51 69452 124 63808 110057 173
Total 1344382 190424 69830 11465 24877 3093 338521 5870 652837 931721 141
Production details of the Sugar factories during 2016-17
Sl. no Taluka No. of working sugar factories and cane crushed
Working factories (nos) Cane crushed(in MTs) Produced sugar (in MTs)
1 Athani 5 2657414 287755
2 Bailhongal 2 275381 28922
3 Belagavi 1 200188 22368
4 Chikkodi 4 1493809 176601
5 Gokak 5 1260883 128873
6 Hukkeri 2 585858 59160
7 Khanapur 1 213827 21774
8 Raibag 2 684569 74754
9 Ramdurg 1 423693 46912
10 Savadatti 1 638020 76066
Dist. Total 24 8433642 923185
Source: as per KAG 2015-16
In Belgaum district wide range of crops are grown and has good scope to increase production and productivity of crops. The farming situation is also different from rainfed to irrigated situation. Based on crop area and problems, farmer income enhancement is planned with increasing productivity, cost reduction, crop diversification and value addition. It is mentioned here district major crops, area, production and productivity information.
Table 27: Area, Production and Productivity of the field crops:
Sl. No. Crop Area (ha) Production (MT) Productivity (kg/ha)
1 Maize 165602 593957 3961
2 Jowar 132079 11852 993
3 Paddy 65599 142123 2550
4 Wheat 50768 36865 986
5 Bajra 10201 9177 776
6 Ragi 1197 1643 1414
Cereals Total 425446 795617 1780
7 Chickpea 102619 35471 583
8 Green gram 40176 3278 212
9 Pigeonpea 9895 1644 451
10 Black gram 7056 1174 282
11 Horse gram 1848 1277 414
Pulses Total 1848 1277 414
12 Soybean 93873 51759 816
13 Groundnut 35357 41445 1104
14 Sunflower 9949 7707 757
15 Safflower 1679 1314 579
Oilseeds Total 140858 102225 814
16 Sugarcane 194483 15333747 102 t/ha
17 Cotton 54695 74896 bales 427
Commercial crop Total 249178
 Enhancing Crop Productivity
In view of ever-increasing demand for food, increased production per unit area is critical. since increase in area may not be a feasible option, improved yield appears as the only solution. Enhancing Production through increase in yield or productivity of crops and other enterprises is the single most important factor that can increase income. Enhancing the productivity is the only route available to enhance income. while varietal improvement through conventional breeding or biotechnology is a long-term option, bridging yield gaps through adoption of recommended agronomic practices, planning profitable technology that can maximize aggregate income. Use of high yielding variety seeds or planting material, irrigation, crop nutrition, integrated weed management and integrated pest management are the primary factors. These can enhance productivity.
 Cost reduction Technologies:
Reducing cost of cultivation through good and effective management practices are essetial practices to enhance farmers net income. The cost of cultivation has been on the rise’ eroding the profits. Lowering the costs without compromising on the yield out-put can increase the net income’.  It is possible to do so as there is a general tendency on the part of farmers to apply overdose of fertilizers, pesticides, non-adoption of mechanization in various agricultural practices and depending on age old practices expecting higher yields/ is increasing cost of cultivation. Hence adoption of mechanization to reduce labour dependency, integrated weed/pest/nutrient and irrigation techniques and production of manure with farm residue can increase income by reducing cost.
Crop diversification
Diversification can be a major game changer. When we talk about diversification it is mostly about high value crops, intercropping system, introduction of new profitable crop, crop/varieties suitable to adopt and good yielding system to climatic vulnerability. Diversification of agriculture offers food and nutrition security, income growth, diversification of sources of income, poverty alleviation, employment generation, judicious use of land and water resources, sustainable agricultural development, and environmental improvement. Especially for small holders who do not possess adequate land to generate enough income for the family. It can be of three types, viz. product (high value enterprises), process (precision farming), and time diversification (delinking from seasonality).
Value chain
Value addition is the process of changing/ transforming/ segregating agro-animal produce/community from its original state to customer-based product to derived enhanced income through marketing system. Agro processing is a set of physico-techno economic activities carried out for transformation, value addition, preservation, conservation and handling of agro-animal produce to make it usable as food, feed, fibre, fuel and industrial raw material. Value addition to raw farm produce has been recognised as one of the key contributors for sustainable growth in farmers income and rural employment. Value added products can fetch 2-3 times more prices. Presently the producer farmer gets only 25% of his produce value what the consumer pays. Around 75%of value goes to processors, distributers and marketers. Therefore, agricultural universities/research institutes/private institutes have developed adaptable processes, technologies, equipment’s and machinery for food processing, packaging, storage and marketing at different scales.